The Fountain: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies <p>The Fountain is a biannual interdisciplinary journal published by the Catholic University of Zimbabwe. The complex nature of the problems encountered in the world today requires scientific enquiry from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. The Fountain therefore seeks to provide a platform for debate, and sharing of results of research from various subjects.</p> en-US <p>The copyright for all articles belongs to the authors. All other copyright is held by the journal.</p> (Antonio S. Marizane) (Bryan Nyamayedenga) Wed, 19 Dec 2018 09:11:13 +0000 OJS 60 Table of Contents Sarlomie Farisai Zinyemba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 08:35:27 +0000 Foreword <p>The Catholic University of Zimbabwe Growth and Development Strategic Plan 2013-2022 gives pride of place to research as one of the university’s three key activity areas alongside teaching and service. St. John Paul 11 articulated the Catholic University’s research agenda in Ex Corde Ecclesiae as follows: A Catholic University …is immersed in human society…. It is called on to become an ever more effective instrument of cultural progress for individuals as well as for society. Included among its research activities, therefore, will be a study of serious contemporary problems in areas such as the dignity of human life, the promotion of justice for all, the quality of personal and family life, the protection of nature, the search for peace and political stability, a more just sharing in the world’s resources, and a new economic and political order that will better serve the human community at a national and international level. University research will seek to discover the root causes of the serious problems of our time… If need be, a Catholic University must have the courage to speak uncomfortable truths which do not please public opinion, but which are necessary to safeguard the authentic good of society (St. John Paul 11, 2009). The senior management team of the Catholic University of Zimbabwe (CUZ) launched its research programme at its annual strategy retreat in Bulawayo in January 2016 by formally establishing the Research Board and allocating a percentage of its annual budget to research. It is from that programme that the current edition of the CUZ Journal, The Fountain: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, emanates. While the Journal takes a cue from St. John Paul 11’s injunction for a Catholic University’s research agenda as indicated above, the current edition, while interdisciplinary in coverage, addresses only a few of the many aspects of contemporary society and human life that St. John Paul 11 articulates. Subsequent editions of The Fountain will address equally pressing issues of contemporary society, including some which may focus on what St. John Paul 11 calls “uncomfortable truths which do not please public opinion, but which are necessary to safeguard the authentic good of society.” It is my pleasure to invite you to enjoy reading the current edition!</p> <p>Professor Ranga Zinyemba</p> <p><strong>Vice Chancellor and Rector</strong></p> Ranga Zinyemba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial <p>“How can a post-conflict society deal with the legacy of a recent violent past? How can a society deeply divided and traumatized, regain trust in itself and rebuild a moral system and a shared future? Can individuals, communities and societies make the choice to transform great suffering into great wisdom? Should priority be given to punishing perpetrators in order to combat the culture of impunity?” These are some of the questions that Madenga Innocent R. grapples with in his article Transitional Justice: The Evolution of an Essential Component of Post-Conflict Peace Building Processes. After the 2008 elections a lot of Zimbabweans were subjected to violence and torture. This left a lot of people psychologically and socially affected. Hence more still needs to be done in as far as healing of memories is concerned. Muzanago Kudzai Macmillan and Gatsi Orippah, in their article: From Voting to Torture: Examining the Psycho-Social Effects of the 2008 Political Election Process in Zimbabwe, make recommendations for such healing to take place. Among the recommendations is that the government of Zimbabwe should invest more in the National Healing and Reconciliation Commission and actively engage with the affected communities, survivors and victims of politically motivated violence, so as to ensure a peaceful environment in future elections. Muzango and Gatsi also recommend the enhancement of counseling services to the victims of post-election violence. Reflecting on forced migration and the deaths of thousands of people who perish trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea in search of greener pastures, Pope Francis says, “We cannot allow the Mediterranean to become a vast graveyard.” (Pope Francis: Address in France on 25/11/2014). Forced migration has become a challenge of our time hence Paul Z. Muchena in his article: Conflict and Forced Migration: Reflections and Recommendations analyses the causes and impact of conflict and forced migration. He also suggests strategies for preventing new displacements. G. Chikowore, Nhavira, J.M. Chinyanganya, Manasah Sibanda and P. Chikowore make a comparative analysis of migration trends in Africa within a global context of socio-economic cultural integration in Northern and Southern Africa in Agenda 2030. The analysis is made with specific reference to socio-economic cultural integration of the Southern and Northern regions in the new millennium. In his article entitled Assessment Based Training: A Drive Towards Enhancement of Assessment Quality in Universities, A. Mada argues that Universities should provide lecturers with assessment-based training to equip them with competencies and skills in assessing students. In her article: The Impact of Handicrafts on Economic Development: A Case Study of Bulawayo Kraal in Binga, 1990-2000, Codelia Govha Dhodho examines how commercial basket weaving in Bulawayo Kraal Village in Binga District in Zimbabwe contributed to economic development of the community during the nineties. However, towards the end of the ninety’s basket weaving of the Tonga community started facing challenges among them the fact that South Africa which used to be the main market for the Tonga baskets started promoting local handicrafts leading to a decline in demand for the Tonga Baskets. Believe Mubonderi and Nomalanga Mpofu-Hamadziripi in their co-authored article: Speaking the Unspeakable: A Socio-Cultural Analysis of Tabooed Language in Shona Society, argue that the Shona society has an unwritten code of behavior which spells out what can be said or not said especially in public. In other words, there are words that are known to exist, yet they cannot and should not be said in public otherwise they cause discomfort to listeners. These are the The Fountain Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Vol. 2(1) 2018 Catholic University of Zimbabwe v taboos found in the Shona culture. ‘Myth is both more and less than philosophy.’ It is more than philosophy because as a fantastic representation of the truth (reality), myth can give satisfactory answers (before philosophical answers are found), to the profound questions affecting humanity. However, myth is less than philosophy in the sense that it is a rudimentary way of explaining reality. In his article: The Myth-Reality Nexus in Shona Oral Traditions in Zimbabwe, Mediating Contradictions and Sustaining Societal Values, Aaron Rwodzi tries to analyse the role of myths among the Shona people.</p> <p>Rev. Dr. Ferdinand Mubvigwi</p> <p>Editor</p> Ferdinand Mubvigwi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Transitional Justice <p>The term transitional justice has become synonymous with contemporary post-conflict peacebuilding processes. The concept evolved from modest theoretical assumptions into distinctive models. The formal origins of the transitional justice concept can be traced to the 1990s, following the demise of the Eastern Communist bloc when nations experienced transition from autocratic to democratic rule. The roots of the concept can however be traced back to major peace settlements such as the Congress of Vienna (1815), the Paris Peace Settlement (1918) and the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials after 1945. The major challenge it faced was acceptability and legitimacy; it was largely viewed as an instrument devised invariably to punish either the vanquished or the perceived perpetrators. This criticism may have informed the concept's evolution from being a vindictive 'victor's justice' seeker into defined frameworks such as criminal tribunals, commissions and courts.&nbsp; This paradigm shift was evidenced by the United Nation's recognition of the framework and its deployment in Yugoslavia (1993), Rwanda (1994) and Sierra Leone (2002). Arguably, the success stody of these case studies' motivated the formation of the International Criminal Court in 2003. The paper will underscore the importance of contexts in the choice of transitional options.</p> Innocent Madenga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 From Voting to Torture <p>This paper is an assessment of the psycho-social effects of the harmonised elections of 2008 in Zimbabwe. After the highly contentious election results in which the main opposition party, the MDC3 defeated the then ruling ZANU-PF party, calculated violence broke out4. The general elections were held on the 29th of March 2008, but it took the ZEC5 two months to release the election results. In the first round of the elections, Morgan Tsvangirai of the MDC was said to have won 47.9% of the vote and Robert Mugabe 43.2%, necessitating a run-off which was to be held on the 27th of June 2008. It is during this period after the announcement of the first round of results and the preparations for the second round of voting that extreme violence ensued, perpetrated mainly against the opposition MDC party supporters by the ZANU PF organs. This forced Tsvangirai to withdraw his candidature from the run-off. The ‘political bases’ created by ZANU PF members especially in the rural areas, but also in the high-density urban areas, opposition supporters were subjected to extreme torture, killings and sexual abuse. This led to the discreditation of the second round of results by the AU and the SADC, prompting the formation of an inclusive government. Despite the fact that there was the creation of an Organ of National Healing, Reconciliation and Integration after the formation of the Government of National Unity (GNU), the paper argues that it did not do enough to ‘heal’ the victims of the post-election violence. Many people are still suffering from the psychosocial effects of the 2008 election violence; therefore, the paper makes some recommendations that would assist the victims and ensure a more effective national healing process.</p> Kudzai Macmillan Muzanago, Orippah Gatsi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 06:43:07 +0000 Conflicts and Forced Migration <p>Forced migration has become a challenge of our time. Since the end of the Cold War, an increasing number of people has been forced to leave their homes as a result of armed conflict, internal strife, and systematic violations of human rights. Africa in particular has seen a lot of its people displaced both internally and externally. Therefore, there is need to reflect on the causes and impact of forced migration. This essay seeks to reflect on the connection between conflict and forced migration particularly in Africa. The essay also suggests strategies for preventing further displacements</p> Paul Z Muchena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 07:02:50 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Migration Trends in Africa Within a Global Context <p>Africa and in particular some of its structural geographical regions are not spared from migration challenges and moreover, socioeconomic cultural and political setbacks emanating from the first decade after independence. This contribution analyzes the migration trends in Africa with specific reference to socioeconomic cultural integration of the Southern and Northern region in the new millennium. Theoretically, the contribution is grounded in the relevant classic works by Charles Kegley and Shannon Blanton (2011); W Magaya (2018); Andrew Heywood (2011); Kanyenze G., Timothy Kondo., Prosper Chitambara and Jos Martens (2011) and John Iliffe (1999) among many others. Methodologically the work is informed by the theory and practice of transformative integration; and migration which is supported by data from primary and secondary sources. Quantitative and qualitative data analyses make central instruments of investigation in this study. Some of the key issues considered herein are migration trends in Africa; essence of Agenda 2030; migration challenges in Southern and Northern Africa; resolving migration challenges and socioeconomic cultural and political transformation particularly in Southern and Northern Africa and Africa in general.</p> G Chikowore, John M Nhavira, John Max Chinyanganya, Manasa Sibanda, Patience Chikowore ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 07:38:41 +0000 Assessment-Based Training <p>This study aims to promote assessment – based training as one of the major factors influencing operations and practices in universities with regards to staff performance towards improved quality service delivery. A purely qualitative inquiry was used to collect and analyse data for this study. A semi-structured interview approach was used to collect data from the participants. Results were recorded verbatim and then analysed and discussed. The study established that many lecturers in the universities are not trained in formative and summative assessment. Most lecturers are drawing their practices from how they were assessed when they were students. According to results from this study it is therefore recommended that universities should provide lecturers with assessment-based training to equip and enhance them with competencies and (assessment) skills in assessing students, for example, assessment and teaching and learning, activities, and examinations setting, questioning techniques, grading</p> Albert Mada ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 07:48:41 +0000 Impact of handicrafts on economic development <p>The study examines how commercial basket weaving in Bulawayo Kraal Village in Binga District in Zimbabwe during the nineties contributed to the economic development of the community. Binga district is faced with a stagnant economy, poverty and lack of basic infrastructure. Governmental and humanitarian aid development strategies since independence have largely been ineffective in improving the economy of the region hence there is need to explore how indigenous knowledge systems such as the production of handicrafts can bring economic development. The paper shows key findings from qualitative data obtained from in-depth interviews with basket-makers of Bulawayo Kraal and traders who used to buy Tonga baskets for resale. The data gathered established that commercial basket weaving in Bulawayo Kraal as a local initiative generated income for the people and as a result improved the economy but the community remained largely underdeveloped. The research revealed major challenges faced by basket makers leading to the decline of the trade but identified the potential of handicrafts in the economic development of rural economies with low agricultural potential.</p> Codelia Govha Dhodho ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 08:04:59 +0000 Speaking the Unspeakable <p>This article discusses tabooed language in Shona, a Bantu language spoken in Zimbabwe. The Shona society, like any other society, has an unwritten code of behavior which spells out acceptable and unacceptable behavior and speech, particularly in the public space so that one’s behavior and speech does not cause discomfort to the listeners. Taboos are a linguistic universal; different cultures have categories of words which are not spoken in public but are known to exist. That goes to show that no culture uses language uninhibitedly (Wardhaugh 1998: 236). In the Shona society, there are some topics that are regarded as sacrosanct and are known to exist in the language but are not to be spoken about publicly. However, there are some individuals who may break the code of behavior and use tabooed language. Employing a qualitative approach, the study used interviews, observations and focus group discussions to solicit for information. This article undertakes a socio-cultural analysis of the categories of tabooed language in Shona within the paradigms of cognitive grammar. It is evident that in the Shona society taboo language still holds an important place in as far as everyday communication and interaction is concerned. Euphemisms still remain valid and they are a reflection of the change and dynamism characterizing the Shona society in this contemporary dispensation.</p> Believe Mubonderi, Nomalanga Mpofu-Hamadziripi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 08:12:33 +0000 The Myth-Reality Nexus In Shona Oral Traditions In Zimbabwe <p>The Karanga and the Kalanga, due to language similarities between them, morphed into one ethnic grouping known as the Shona during the 19th and 20th century ethnic creation during the colonization process. Common among the Shona people is the identification of a particular clan with a myth or totem of origin, and other specific myths that are there to ensure political, physiological, economic, religious and social equilibrium. Some legends are portrayed as mythical, yet they remain very relevant to the contemporary societies as if they represent significant episodes of past lived reality. The Shona epistemological and ontological presumptions built and generationally sustained around the philosophy of ‘ubuntu’ are predicated on a system of myth transmission, validation and modification to ensure societal acceptance and group identity and cohesion. This article analyses selected myths that are universal to the Shona people so that contemporary societies develop an understanding and appreciation of how and why values in different myths have managed to survive through generations. Focus is on the inextricable link between myth and reality in social phenomena to determine the extent to which they have influenced Shona oral traditions over time and space. Most, if not all oral traditions, are replete with ambiguities that arise from the different interpretations of myths that specific groups of people give to them in their attempt to reconstruct the past as it really happened. The connection between myth, reality and oral tradition is discussed and historical probabilities that have become fact from a transcendentalist perspective are highlighted through this interpretive study. The position of this study is that myth and reality can often and contextually be used interchangeably to describe original traditions of the Shona people and that variations within the different oral narratives can be resolved and contradictions reconciled.</p> Aaron Rwodzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 08:19:31 +0000 About The Authors Sarlomie Farisai Zinyemba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000